Статьи 2000 года



AbouRizk Simaan, Mohamed Yasser. Simphony – an integrated environment for construction simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1907-1914.
This paper discusses Simphony as an integrated environment for building special purpose simulation tools for modeling construction systems. Simphony provides various services that enable the developer to easily control different behaviors in the developed tool such as simulation behaviors, graphical representation, statistics, and animation.

Abspoel S.J., Etman L.F.P., Vervoort J., Rooda J.E. Simulation optimization of stochastic systems with integer variables by sequential linearization // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.715-723.

Al-Aomar Raid. Product-mix analysis with discrete event simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1385-1392.

Alexopoulos Christos, Seila Andrew F. Output analysis for simulations // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.101-108.
This paper reviews statistical methods for analyzing output data from computer simulations of single systems. In particular, it focuses on the estimation of steady-state system parameters. The estimation techniques include the replication/deletion approach, the regenerative method, the batch means method, and the standardized time series method.

Allen Theodore, Liyang Yu. Low cost response surface methods for and from simulation optimization // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.704-714.

Angerhofer Bernhard J., Angelides Marios C. System dynamics modelling in supply chain management: research review // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.342-351.
The use of System Dynamics Modeling (SDM) in Supply Chain Management (SCM) has only recently re-emerged after a lengthy slack period. Current research on SDM in SCM focuses on inventory decision and policy development, time compression, demand amplification, supply chain design and integration, and international SCM. The paper first gives an overview of recent research work in these areas, followed by a discussion of research issues that have evolved, and presents a taxonomy of research and development in SDM in SCM.

April J., Glover F., Kelly J. and others A survey of simulation optimization techniques and procedures // Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference. – 2000. – P. 119–128.

Arthur James D., Nance Richard E. Verification and validation without independence: a recipe for failure // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.859-865.
The objectives of this paper are four-fold: (1) to examine the current picture in software systems development, (2) to review the rationale, role and expressed need for IV&V, (3) to identify the benefits attendant in the insistence on the “independent” status of the activity, and (4) to respond to the usual criticisms of negative impacts on cost and schedule. While the treatment is couched in the more general software systems context, we contend that simulations represent prime candidates for IV&V application.

Atkin Marc S., Westbrook David L., Cohen Paul R. Domain-general simulation and planning with physical schemas // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1730-1738.
The paper concludes with an example of how GRASP was applied to the problem of Course of Action generation and evaluation.

Azadeh M.A. Optimization of a heavy continuous rolling mill system via simulation // Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 2000, Guangzhou, China pp. 378-384.

Osman Balci, William F. Ormsby, John T. Carr, III and Said D. Saadi Planning for Verification, Validation, and Accreditation of Modeling and Simulation Applications // In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Orlando, FL, Dec. 10-13). IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2000. pp. 829-839.

Balci Osman, Ormsby William F. Well-defined intended uses: an explicit requirement for accreditation of modeling and simulation applications // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.849-851.
A modeling and simulation (M&S) application is built for aspecific purpose and its acceptability assessment is carried out with respect to that purpose. The accreditation decision for an M&S application is also made with respect to that purpose. The purpose is commonly expressed in terms of .intended uses.. The quality of expressing the intended uses significantly affects the quality of the acceptability assessment as well as the quality of making the accreditation decision. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance in proper definition of the intended uses.

Balci Osman, Ormsby William F., Carr III John T., Saadi Said D. Planning for verification, validation, and accreditation of modeling and simulation applications // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.829-839.
A comprehensive and detailed verification, validation, and accreditation plan and its proper execution are crucially important for the successful accreditation of a modeling and simulation (M&S) application. We provide guidance in developing and executing such a plan throughout the entire M&S application development life cycle.

Baldwin Lynne P., Eldabi Tillal, Paul Ray J. Using simulation for the economic evaluation of liver transplantation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1963-1970.
This paper demonstrates the use of simulation in an evaluative study for the technology of liver transplantation from cost-effectiveness point of view. This study is conducted in the United Kingdom where there are no explicit guidelines for the prioritization of patients waiting for transplantation.

Banks Jerry. Introduction to simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P. 9–16.
This introduction begins with an example of simulation done by hand. Modeling concepts in simulation are then introduced based on the example. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of simulation are discussed. The introduction ends with a discussion of the steps in a simulation study.

Banks J., Carson J.S., II B.L. Nelson D.M. Nicol. Discrete-Event System Simulation, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2000.

Banks Jerry, Chair Panel. Simulation in the future // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1568-1576.
Seven panelists, all simulation consultants, give their view of the future of simulation. There is some consistency in the views with four areas being mentioned by three of the panelists, and four areas being mentioned by two of the panelists. However, depending on how the counting is performed, there are approximately a dozen other areas with just one mention.

Bapat Vivek, Swets Nancy. The Arena product family: enterprise modeling solutions // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.163-169.
This paper introduces the Arena suite of products for modeling, simulation, and optimization highlighting product architecture and technology features that are targeted toward successful deployment of simulation and Arena throughout an enterprise.

Barnard Cathy J., Van Haaften David H. Simulation model for shipment of waste to the waste isolation pilot plant // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1101-1106.
The United States Department of Energy has agreed to ship 15,000 drums of cold war legacy waste from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This waste must undergo characterization and certification prior to shipment. The processes required to characterize and certify waste for shipment to WIPP are extremely complex. A simulation model was developed to analyze drum ьthroughput in these various processes. The simulation model continues to facilitate the INEEL strategic and tactical planning needed to accomplish the agreement within the required time frame.

Barnett Michael W., Miller Charles J. Analysis of the virtual enterprise using distributed supply chain modeling and simulation: an application of e-SCOR // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.352-355.
This paper describes the architectural components used to implement a distributed supply chain modeling tool (e-SCOR) and applications of e-SCOR that demonstrate how enterprises are modeled and analyzed to determine the validity of alternative, virtual business models.

Barth-Jones Daniel C., Adams Andrew L., Koopman James S. Monte Carlo simulation experiments for analysis of hiv vaccine effects and vaccine trial design // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1985-1994.
This paper reports on a discrete-event simulation to analyze the recently developed Retrospective Partner Trials (RPT) HIV vaccine trial design. A specially designed simulation system, HIVSIM, was used to simulate data resulting from the RPT design vaccine trials. HIVSIM explicitly models complex HIV transmission dynamics and vaccine trial design characteristics. Monte Carlo simulation analyses conducted with HIVSIM indicate that the RPT design is able to produce vaccine effect estimates with acceptably small bias, high precision and excellent statistical power under plausible HIV vaccine trial conditions.

Beck (Ulrich von Beck), Nowak John W. The merger of discrete event simulation with activity based costing for cost estimation in manufacturing environments // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.2048-2054.
In this work, activity based costing (ABC) and discrete-event simulation are linked to provide an improved costing, planning, and forecasting tool. Numerous point cost estimates are generated by the ABC model, using driver values obtained from a discrete-event simulation of the process. The various cost estimates can be used to produce confidence interval estimates of both the physical system and underlying cost structure.

Benjamin Perakath, Delen Dursun, Mayer Richard, O.Brien Timothy. A model-based approach for component simulation development // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1831-1839.
In this paper we describe a model-based approach that seeks to address these problems via the implementation of MODELSIM – a comprehensive modeling and analysis architecture that includes (i) application of the IDEF3 and IDEF5 methods for simulation modeling and analysis specification, (ii) automatic generation of executable component-based simulations from IDEF-based descriptive models, and (iii) reusable libraries of modeling components to facilitate rapid configuration of models as needed over extended periods of time.

Bernhard Willi, Portmann Peter. Traffic simulation of roundabouts in switzerland // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1148-1153.
In Switzerland, roundabouts enjoy a large and growing popularity. As a self-organizing system, they replace more and more the traditional traffic light systems. This article focuses on the modeling and simulation of a double tracked roundabout near Lucerne (Switzerland). The simulation results were used for decision purposes; in order to find out whether a single or double tracked roundabout should be used there. All simulations were done with the simulation language SIMSCRIPT II.5.

Biswas Shubhabrata, Merchawi Sara. Use of discrete event simulation to validate an agent based scheduling engine // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1778-1782.
This paper discusses the use of simulation in a new context. Most often QUEST is viewed as a stand-alone simulation tool to analyze and understand shop floor behavior. It has rarely been used in conjunction with other proprietary software. This paper attempts to demonstrate how QUEST is being used in conjunction with an agent based scheduling software (henceforth referred to as Scheduler) developed using Java. The Scheduler is a multithreaded application using software agents. It can run in a distributed manner over a LAN.

Boon Ping Gan, Li Liu, Jain Sanjay, Turner Stephen J., Cai Wentong, Wen-Jing Hsu. Distributed supply chain simulation across enterprise boundaries // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1245-1251.
In this paper, distributed simulation techniques are presented as an enabling technology that allows corporations to construct a cross enterprise simulation while hiding model details within the enterprise. This can be realized by either building the simulation on top of the Runtime Infrastructure of the High Level Architecture or building the simulation on top of a customized distributed discrete event simulation protocol. These alternative approaches are compared in terms of their performance and interoperability.

Borshchev A.V., Kolesov Y.B., and Senichenkov Y.B. Java engine for UML based hybrid state machines. Winter Simulation Conference, 2000.

Brade Dirk. Enhancing modeling and simulation accreditation by structuring verification and validation results // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.840-848.
Model Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is as complex as developing a Modeling and Simulation application itself. For the purpose of structuring both Verification and Validation (V&V) activities and V&V results, we introduce a refined V&V process. After identification of the major influence factors on applicable V&V, a conceptual approach for subphase-wise organization of V&V activities is presented. Finally a hierarchical presentation of V&V results is shown which addresses different people involved in use or in accreditation of simulation models.

Breitenecker Felix, Lingl Martin, Rybin Erwin. The ARGESIM-comparisons on discrete simulation results and evaluation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.312-315.
This paper describes how to set up courses in (advanced) simulation techniques based on ARGESIM/EUROSIM Comparisons. SNE has defined 13 Software Comparisons, of which 6 concern discrete models, and collected solutions over the last 8 years. These solutions have now been evaluated and made accessible via the WWW. This evaluation may be used as basis for a course on modeling and simulation. Finally, there is a brief introduction of ETCA and it is shown how it uses the ARGESIM/EUROSIM Comparisons for giving advice which simulators to use in the field of environmental technologies.

Brown Nancy, Powers Steve. Simulation in a box (a generic reusable maintenance model) // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1050-1056.
This paper discusses considerations and challenges in designing and moving to a generic model. The current version of the model from the user and modeler view is also presented.

Brown Robert G. Driving digital manufacturing to reality // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.224-228.
This paper discusses the methodology of applying Digital Manufacturing from the initial concept design phase of both product and production processes, through detail design and validation, to both implementation on the shop floor and the constant monitoring the shop floor performance data to support continuous improvement activities. Because up to 60 percent of the value of automobiles and fighter aircraft are sourced from suppliers, the Digital Manufacturing environment must be accessible across the supply chain to support todays B2B method of doing business.

Bruzzone Agostino G., Giribone Pietro, Revetria Roberto. Simulation as educational support for production and logistics in industrial engineering // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1613-1618.
The proposed implementation is a monitor system able to train operators for on-line real time manufacturing control in order to analyze the performance of a production process. This system integrates a simulation model and a statistical analysis module. The architecture has been designed to be able to operate in a real time distributed environment, by using TCP/IP sockets; obviously this approach makes it possible to access the data by different users with a hierarchical architecture. This innovative approach pays great attention to make a use friendly network support training for both operatives and managers thanks to the portability and scalability of the system. The methodology has been tested on a real case study and the experimental results demonstrate the potential of such an approach.

Buss Arnold H. Component-based simulation modeling // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.964-971.
This paper presents a component-based framework for designing simulation models and discusses its implementation in a package called Simkit. In this framework, Components are defined to be monolith software entities that interact with other components in one of only three ways. Although seemingly restrictive, this approach supports more extensibility and customization of simulation models than conventional Object-Oriented design.

Carr III John T., Balci Osman. Verification and validation of object-oriented artifacts throughout the simulation model development life cycle // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.866-871.
The purpose of this paper is to present a series of questions (or indicators) for assessing the verity and validity of the artifacts produced during the entire object-oriented simulation model development life cycle. Using modern object-oriented development processes, artifacts developed in one phase flow seamlessly from those of the previous phase. This provides forward and backward traceability between artifacts.

Caughlin S. (2000). An integrated approach to verification, validation, and accreditation of models and simulations. In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 872-881.

Centeno Martha A., Albacete Cristina, Terzano Diego O., Carrillo Manuel, Ogazon Tom. A simulation study of the radiology department at JMH // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1978-1984.
This paper discusses a study of the Radiology department at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The animated simulation model was fed data from the operations database. Several inefficiencies were identified, and suggestions for improvement were explored.

Centola D., McKenzie E., Wilensky U. (2000). Survival of the groupiest: Facilitating students' understanding of multi-level evolution through multi-agent modeling – The EACH Project // In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. Nashua, NH: New England Complex Systems Institute, and InterJournal Complex Systems, 377.

Centola D., Wilensky U., McKenzie E. (2000). A hands-on modeling approach to evolution: Learning about the evolution of cooperation and altruism through multi-agent modeling – The EACH Project // Proceedings of the Fourth Annual International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI, June 14-17.

Chew Jennifer, Sullivan Cindy. Verification, validation, and accreditation in the life cycle of models and simulations // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.813-818.
Verification, validation, and accreditation (VV&A) activities should be an on-going process throughout the life cycle of models and simulations. It is important to note that there is no single set of VV&A tasks, events, or methods that would apply every time to every situation. The VV&A emphasis and methods used vary depending on the particular life cycle phase it is in, previous VV&A and use, the risks and uncertainty, its size and complexity, and of course, the resources available. For simplification, this paper discusses the activities and tasks during the early stages of model development and addresses each of the VV&A efforts separately, along with its associated activities. It outlines the specific VV&A activities and products that are appropriate to each phase of model development.

Chick Stephen E. Bayesian methods for simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.109-118.
This tutorial describes some ways that Bayesian methods address problems that arise during simulation studies. This includes quantifying uncertainty about input distributions and parameters, sensitivity analysis, and the selection of the best of several simulated alternatives. Focus is on illustrating the main ideas and their relevance to practical problems. Numerous citations for both introductory and more advanced material provide a launching pad into the Bayesian literature.

Clay Gregory R. Venture launch: use of simulation to support strategic operational decisions // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.2016-2039.
This paper describes how discrete-event simulation enhanced a traditional process design effort for a new media company in pre-launch mode.

Clymer John R. Optimizing production work flow using opEMCSS // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1305-1314.
A graphical discrete event simulation library is proposed for system simulation that is based on interacting concurrent processes. This library works with EXTEND (Imagine That Inc), an inexpensive yet capable and easy to use simulation software package, and it is called Operational Evaluation Modeling for Context-Sensitive Systems.

Colby Simon A., Beetham D. Lee. Long range artillery simulation using component based development techniques and the high level architecture // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1001-1005.
This paper describes the use and development of an artillery synthetic environment (SE). This SE will be used to support system concept development and validation for long range and smart munitions. It will also be used for the development of operational concepts for these weapons including an investigation of ISTAR requirements.

Conwell Candace L., Enright Rosemary, Stutzman Marcia A. Capability maturity models support of modeling and simulation verification, validation, and accreditation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.819-828.
This paper discusses how the use of these two Capability Maturity Models can improve Department of Defense ability to develop modeling and simulation with the customer need for Verification, Validation, and Accreditation in mind.

Currie Wendy, Hlupic Vlatka. Simulation modelling: the link between change management panaceas // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.2022-2028.
Although change management panaceas have been widely discussed in the business and management literature for several decades, not many publications address the role of simulation modeling in supporting these panaceas. This paper investigates four management innovation and change programs: TQM, JIT, BPR and Process Innovation and discusses how simulation modeling could increase their effectiveness.

Datar Milind M. Enterprise simulation: framework for a strategic application // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.2010-2014.
This paper offers to explain the motivation behind Enterprise Simulation, and explain its relevance to the business environment of large, complex organizations. A development framework is presented with technical and managerial issues in its implementation.

Davis Paul K. Exploratory analysis enabled by multiresolultion, multiperspective modeling // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.293-302.
The objective of exploratory analysis is to gain a broad understanding of a problem domain before going into details for particular cases. Its focus is understanding comprehensively the consequences of uncertainty, which requires a good deal more than normal sensitivity analysis. Such analysis is facilitated by multiresolution, multiperspective modeling structures that are becoming increasingly practical. A knowledge of related design principles can help build interfaces to more normal legacy models, which can also be used for exploration.

Davis Wayne J. Simulation-based acquisition: an impetus for change // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1061-1067.
In this paper, the acquisition process is redefined as a collection of concurrent functions that may be iteratively implemented throughout the acquisition process. Potential applications for simulation in this enhanced acquisition process are discussed. In addition, the need for further simulation development is conveyed.

Davis Paul K., Bigelow James H., McEver Jimmie. Informing and calibrating a multiresolution exploratory analysis model with high resolution simulation: the interdiction problem as a case history // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.316-325.
Exploratory analysis uses a low-resolution model for broad survey work. High-resolution simulation can sometimes be used to inform development and calibration of such a model. This paper is a case history of such an effort.

Davis Paul C., Fishwick Paul A., Overstreet C. Michael, Pegden C. Dennis Model composability as a research investment: responses to the featured paper // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1585-1591.
Responses to the featured paper are provided by four authors who represent different elements of the simulation research community: industry, private research laboratory, and university. As is evident from the reactions given, these perspective provide both shared and distinct observations on model composability as an opportunity for research investment.

de Boer Pieter-Tjerk, Nicola Victor F., Rubinstein Reuven Y. Adaptive importance sampling simulation of queueing networks // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.646-655.
In this paper, a method is presented for the efficient estimation of rare-event (overflow) probabilities in Jackson queueing networks using importance sampling. The method differs in two ways from methods discussed in most earlier literature: the change of measure is state-dependent, i.e., it is a function of the content of the buffers, and the change of measure is determined using a cross-entropy-based adaptive procedure.

Delen Dursun, Benjamin Perakath C. An enterprise modeling and analysis toolkit // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.215-223.
This paper present a suite of software tools, designed and developed by Knowledge Based Systems, Inc., that can generate integrated solutions to complicated enterprise analysis including business process reengineering, activity based costing, and training.

Dengiz Berna, Alabas Cigdem. Simulation optimization using tabu search // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – pp.805-810.
Investigation of the performance and operation of complex systems in manufacturing or other environments, analytical models of these systems become very complicated. Because of the complex stochastic characteristic of the systems, simulation is used as a tool to analyze them. The trust of such simulation analysis usually is to determine the optimum combination of factors that effect the considered system performance. The purpose of this study is to use a tabu search algorithm in conjunction with a simulation model of a JIT system to find the optimum number of kanbans.

Desel Jörg. Teaching system modeling, simulation and validation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1669-1675.
The paper concentrates on these aspects and applications of simulation in education, advocates its presence in student curricula, presents building blocks of education modules for simulation and validation with respect to both content and method, discusses requirements for simulation and validation education, and finally suggests the integration of simulation teach ware in virtual classrooms and distance learning environments.

Díaz José A., Pérez Ileana G. Simulation and optimization of sugar cane transportation in harvest season // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1114-1117.
This paper describes an application involving the simulation and optimization of a complex man-machine system that is sugar cane harvest, in which dynamic modeling plays an important role. Simulation modeling with design of experiments, response surfaces and optimization techniques are combined in order to reach the best solution according to some measurements.

ElAarag Hala, Bassiouni Mostafa. Simulation of transport protocols over wireless communication networks // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1235-1241.
In this paper, we describe a general-purpose communication network simulator that we designed to examine the performance of transport protocols over wireless networks. The general-purpose simulator can be used to study various aspects of performance of communication networks. In particular, we use it to examine, evaluate and predict the performance of wireless networks under a variety of the most commonly used transport protocols. We also examine the use of newly suggested protocols specifically designed for wireless networks.

Engiles Michael J., Stephan Edward R. System sizing using modeling and simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1222-1226.
This paper will address the benefits derived from the application of modeling and simulation to areas such as architectural trade-offs, and sizing the system to meet the workload. A variety of practical examples will be included from server systems, telecommunications networks and manual processes. Inherent in the successful application of the modeling and simulation procedures is the requirement that they be applied iteratively and in a manner that produces frequent feedback from the system designers, managers and user community.

Evans D.L., Leemis L.M. 2000. Input Modeling Using a Computer Algebra System // In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference, ed. J. Joines, R. Barton, P. Fishwick, and K. Kang, P.577–586. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, New Jersey.

Fields Jeff, Davis Dennis, Taylor Alfred. Simulation of the remote unit assembly and test: a case study // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1351-1354.
This paper will present a case study on the use of simulation to develop and implement an assembly line for the assembly and test of customer located telephony equipment. The simulation model was used as a tool to assist in development and integration of the assembly and test processes with a focus on capacity, material flow optimization, and equipment layout. The authors will discuss how the model affected the facilities layout, equipment specifications, and material flow.

Flatto Jerry, Gardner L. Leslie. Using information generated by a discrete event simulation to evaluate real options in a research and development environment // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.2040-2047.
This article examines how a discrete event simulation can be developed to evaluate the impact of real options on a research and development project. Previous work with real options has been primarily mathematically based and the approach was not transferable to actual projects. The results shown in this article indicate that simulation is a valid method to evaluate real options and that the real options do impact the net present value of a process.

Fu M.C., Andradóttir S., Carson J.S. and others Integrating optimization and simulation: research and practice // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P. 610–616.

Fu Yonghui, Piplani Rajesh, de Souza Robert, Wu Jingru. Multi-agent enabled modeling and simulation towards collaborative inventory management in supply chains // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1763-1771.
This paper is framed to address the preliminary approach towards process-oriented collaborative inventory management in supply chains, taking advantage of multi-agent technology in terms of modeling and simulation.

Geist Robert, Westall James. Practical aspects of simulating systems having arrival processes with long-range dependence // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.666-674.
Analysis of network traffic indicates that packet arrival processes have significant stochastic dependence. It has been suggested that this dependence is so strong as to be well modeled by long-range dependent processes. The fact that no finite process can be said to be truly long-range dependent poses potentially serious obstacles to simulation modeling. In this paper, we explore some of these obstacles and propose practical methods for obtaining useful results with simulations of manageable duration.

Gilbert N.T., P. (2000). How to build and use agent-based models in social science // Mind and Society, 1(1), 57-72.

Gilmer John B. Circumstance descriptors: a method for generating plan modifications and fragmentary orders // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – pp.303-311.

Gilbert N., Terna P. How to build and use agent-based models in Social Science // Mind & Society. 2000. Vol. 1. № 1. P. 57–72.

Goldsman David, Marshall William S., Kim Seong-Hee, Nelson Barry L. Ranking and selection for steady-state simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.544-553.
Authors present and evaluate two ranking-and-selection procedures for use in steady-state simulation experiments when the goal is to find which among a finite number of alternative systems has the largest or smallest long-run average performance. Both procedures extend existing methods for independent and identically normally distributed observations to general stationary output processes, and both procedures are sequential.

Goodsell C. Ann, Van Kley Thomas J. Inventory management simulations at cat logistics // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – pp.1185-1190.
Simulation is used extensively by Caterpillar Logistics Services, Inc. to determine an appropriate strategy for achieving clients. inventory and customer service goals. Internally developed inventory management simulations, at the transaction and SKU level, help both to develop inventory / service strategies for potential clients and to determine the effect of a change in strategy for existing clients. Inventory management continues to be a significant contributor to the success of Caterpillar Logistics Services.

Grabau Mark R., Payne Michael D. Predicting enemy force closure with simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1006-1009.
This paper presents a model and an analysis done to predict enemy force closure. The simulation replaces a pencil and ruler method that has been used by Department of Defense planners for over a century. More importantly, the model provides planners with the capability to assess previously .impossible to quantify, yet critical, factors: transportation network constraints, equipment reliability and maintainability, varying task times, nighttime operations, and the effects of air interdiction. War planning implications are discussed and notional results are presented.

Greasley Andrew. Effective uses of business process simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.2004-2009.
This paper evaluates a number of tools for the redesign of processes through the use of two case studies based in the UK Police Service.

Guru Ashu, Savory Paul, Williams Robert. A web-based interface for storing and executing simulation models // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1810-1814.
In this research, a web-based interface or toolkit has been developed for storing and executing SIMAN simulation models over the Internet. This toolkit consists of a WWW interface to SIMAN and a web-accessible database for storing user models. It provides users an easy-to-use environment for developing text-based simulation models using the SIMAN simulation language. It also allows users to test the functionality of a SIMAN model using the SIMAN debugger/run controller.

Harper Ann M., Taranto Sarah E., Edwards Erick B., Daily O. Patrick. An update on a successful simulation project: the unos liver allocation model // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1955-1962.
This paper provides a brief description of UNOS Liver Allocation Model (ULAM) structure, and summarizes the evolution of ULAM from 1995 to 2000.

Harrell Charles R., Price Rochelle N. Healthcare simulation modeling and optimization using MedModel // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.203-207.
MedModel was specifically designed to be simple to use and tailorable to the needs of healthcare managers, engineers and clinicians. This paper serves as a preliminary examination of some of MedModel comprehensive features and capabilities. Independent arrivals and scheduled appointments as well as new statements and functions have been carefully designed to solve unique hospital and healthcare specific simulation problems.

Harrell Charles R., Price Rochelle N. Simulation modeling and optimization using ProModel // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.197-202.
This paper provides an overview of the ProModel Optimization Suite and presents its modeling, analysis, and optimization capabilities.

Heeringa Brent, Cohen Paul. An underlying model for defeat mechanisms // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.933-939.
Defeat mechanisms are strategies for achieving victory over an opponent. Although defeat mechanisms often rely on influencing the opponent psychologically and emotionally, most simulations of warfare do not model these “soft” factors, they model only victory by attrition. To create more accurate, adaptable, and believable systems, we must be able to model a variety of defeat mechanisms. We propose a model where parameters and attributes that affect emotional and physical fatigue are combined to produce an overall measure of fatigue called effective fatigue. Effective fatigue, along with an agent’s state, is combined by a defeat model to produce probabilities of surrender.

Heinicke Matthias U., Hickman Alan. Eliminate bottlenecks with integrated analysis tools in eM-PLANT // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.229-231.

Helbing D., Farkas I., Vicsek T. Simulating dynamical features of escape panic // Nature. 2000. no. 407. P. 487–490.

Henderson Shane G. Mathematics for simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.137-146.
I survey several mathematical techniques and results that are useful in the context of stochastic simulation. The concepts are introduced through the study of a simple model of ambulance operation to ensure clarity, concreteness and cohesion.

Henriksen James O. Adding animation to a simulation using Proof // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.191-196.
Proof Animation is a family of products for adding animation to discrete event simulations. Proof is available in a variety of versions, including an inexpensive, student version, mid-size and unlimited-size commercial versions, a run-time version, and a royalty-free, redistributable demo viewer. Proof is an ASCII-stream-driven, general-purpose animation system which runs on readily available PC hardware.

Henriksen James O. SLX: the X is for extensibility // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.183-190.
This paper presents an overview of SLX. Earlier papers (Henriksen 1997, 1998) presented the development of a conveyor modeling package in SLX, and example of how SLX has been coupled with other software, respectively.

Henriksen James O., Crain Robert C. GPSS/H: a 23-year retrospective view // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.177-182.
GPSS/H was first placed into commercial service in November, 1977. Over the ensuing 23 years, it has become well known for its speed and dependability. In GPSS/H, the process-interaction world view has been combined with many advanced features to make an extremely powerful and flexible tool, capable of handling large, complicated models with ease, yet still providing exceptionally high performance. This paper provides a retrospective look at the history of GPSS/H.

Hilgers Michael G. Quasi-Monte Carlo methods in cash flow testing simulations // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.517-526.
This paper reports the results of cash flow testing simulations performed for Conseco L.L.C. using so-called quasi-Monte Carlo techniques. In these, pseudo-random number generation is replaced with deterministic low discrepancy sequences. It was found that by judicious choice of subsequences, the quasi-Monte Carlo method provided a consistently tighter estimate, than the traditional methods, for a fixed, small number of sample paths. The techniques used to select these subsequences are discussed.

Hlupic Vlatka. Simulation software: an operational research society survey of academic and industrial users // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1676-1683.
This paper presents the results of a survey on the use of simulation software, which has involved academic and industrial members of the Simulation Study Group of the Operational Research Society of Great Britain. Findings of the survey indicate which types of simulation software are primarily being used, the most common application areas of simulation, users. opinion about software and possible ways of improving simulation software.

Hodgson John, Katz Marc. Using a portable simulation structure with emulation for offline testing // AutoSimulations Symposium 2000 - Discovering New Frontiers.
This paper will describe the module program structure, as well as the use of the MCM to exchange information between the PLC and an AutoMod simulation.

Hugan Joseph C. Using simulation to evaluate cargo ship design on the lpd17 program // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1407-1410.
As part of the design of the next generation Naval Amphibious Transport Dock Ship (LPD17), simulation was used to evaluate the arrangement and flow of cargo onthe ship and to integrate material flow concepts with the overall design requirements. The simulation model evaluated specific cargo load out scenarios to determine if the proposed material handling systems would satisfy specific mission criteria.

Hyden Paul, Schruben Lee. Improved decision processes through simultaneous simulation and time dilation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.743-748.

Ingalls Ricki G., Morrice Douglas J. Pert scheduling with resources using qualitative simulation graphs // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.362-370.
The Qualitative Simulation Graph Methodology (QSGM) is well suited to address the PERT scheduling with resources problem. The coverage property of QSGM has two important implications for the PERT scheduling problem. First, it means that all possible schedules are represented. Second, it means that, as long as the delay time intervals are not violated, we can characterize all possible outcomes of a decision that needs to be made in the schedule. This gives rise to the possibility of robust point-in-time scheduling decisions without needed to rerun the simulation in order to get the results.

Irizarry Maria de los A., Kuhl Michael E., Lada Emily K., Subramanian Sriram, Wilson James R. Analyzing transformation-based simulation metamodels // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.773-781.

Jo Kenneth Y., Munk Christopher. Simulation methods for analysis of traffic processes in atm networks // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.983-990.
This paper presents efficient simulation methods for analyzing modern, large-scale networks and evaluating their performance attributes.

Karatza Helen D. A simulation model of backfilling and I/O scheduling in a partitionable parallel system // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.496-570.

Kelton D.W. Experimental design for simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.32-38.
This tutorial introduces some of the ideas, issues, challenges, solutions, and opportunities in deciding how to experiment with a simulation model to learn about its behavior. Careful planning, or designing, of simulation experiments is generally a great help, saving time and effort by providing efficient ways to estimate the effects of changes in the models inputs on its outputs. Traditional experimental-design methods are discussed in the context of simulation experiments, as are the broader questions pertaining to planning computer-simulation experiments.

Kilgore Richard A. Silk, Java and object-oriented simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.246-252.
Silk is a set of Java classes that support object-oriented, general-purpose simulation and animation using the Java programming language. Silk enables the development of complex, yet manageable simulations through the construction of usable and reusable simulation objects. This paper describes the fundamentals of designing and creating a Silk model.

Kilgore Richard A., Burke Emmett. Object-oriented simulation of distributed systems using Java and Silk// In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1802-1809.
The paper describes the infrastructure, its robustness, and the application of the model to produce insights for a system under design. The simulation infrastructure enables a high fidelity representation of the internal complexity of the application on each processing node, the operating system behavior, and the disks and network. The simple yet powerful representation leverages the use of the Silk entity-thread architecture to achieve a simulation architecture that maps to the actual system architecture in both conceptual design and processing sequence. The model has been validated through instrumentation of the evolving target system.

Kiran Ali S., Cetinkaya Tekin, Og Serafettin. Simulation modeling and analysis of a new international terminal // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1168-1172.
This paper describes a recently completed project involving the development of simulation models for the new international terminal at Istanbul Ataturk Airport, Istanbul, Turkey. The simulation models helped evaluate the passenger and aircraft flow from the terminal entrance to boarding; identify the system bottlenecks as well as the system capacities. The models have also been used for operations planning, training and the demonstration of terminal activities. The results showed that the new terminal is capable of serving the planned passenger capacity per year. The new terminal has more than enough capacity for the peak hours of the day and/or peak days of the year.

Kleijnen Jack P.C., Cheng Russell C.H., Bettonvil Bert. Validation of trace-driven simulation models: more on bootstrap tests // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.882-892.
To evaluate validation statistics, the paper develops novel types of bootstrapping based on subruns. Three basic bootstrap procedures are devised, depending on the number of simulation replicates: one, two, or more replicates. Moreover, for the case of more than two replicates the paper considers conditional versus unconditional resampling. These six validation statistics and four bootstrap procedures are evaluated in extensive Monte Carlo experiments with single-server queueing systems. The main conclusion is that bootstrapping of the simplest validation statistic gives the correct type I error probability, and has relatively high power.

Kleijnen J.P.C., Sargent R.G. 2000. A methodology for fitting and validating metamodels in simulation // European Journal of Operational Research 120:14-29.

Klingstam Par, Olsson Bengt-Goran. Using simulation techniques for continuous process verification in industrial system development // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1315-1321.
The purpose of this paper is to describe how discrete event simulation should be used as a tool for continuous process verification in industrial system development. Results include a specification of the working procedures to be used in each life cycle phase of a development project, as well as a definition of the areas where efforts are needed in the future.

Knoll J. Michael, Heim Joseph A. Ensuring the successful adoption of discrete event simulation in a manufacturing environment // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1297-1304.
Discrete event simulation has long been recognized as a valuable tool for manufacturers, but converting the recognition of value into an embrace of the technology can be a challenge. Like most technologies, with which an organization has little or no experience, timing and the manner in which simulation is introduced can significantly influence whether its adoption will succeed or fail. Without careful planning and adequate foresight, simulation technology will not prove its benefits in the workplace and will be viewed as an unnecessary expense. In this paper, we examine the characteristics that signal the need for discrete event simulation, and we discuss the strategies and methods we have found to ensure its successful adoption.

Konyukh V., Sinoviev V., Zhdanov Y., Davidenko V. Mine Simulation and Animation: the Practical Experience / Mechanizacja i Automatizacja Gornictwa. № 4-5(354), 2000, p.161-166.

Krahl David. The Extend simulation environment // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.280-289.
The Extend modeling environment provides an integrated structure for building simulation models and developing new simulation tools. This environment supports simulation modelers on a wide range of levels. Model builders can use Extend pre-built modeling components to quickly build and analyze systems without programming. Simulation tool developers can use Extend built-in, compiled language, ModL to develop new modeling components. All of this is done within a single, self-contained software program that does not require external interfaces, compilers, or code generators.

Kulick Beth C., Sawyer James T. The use of simulation modeling for intermodal capacity assessment // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1164-1167.
Automation Associates, Inc. (AAI) is a simulation consulting services company that has been providing models for the transportation and intermodal industry for over ten years. AAI has developed many models to support major architecture and engineering projects as well as provide analysis support for intermodal operators. Through this experience, there have been modeling projects built to address different objectives based on the project requirements. A survey of the major categories of modeling projects based on their unique objectives and scope is presented in this paper. Additionally, two actual model implementations are discussed relative to this outline.

Kuljis Jasna, Paul Ray J. A review of web based simulation: whither we wander? // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1872-1881.
This paper considers a variety of new technologies for discrete-event simulation software development. Environments and languages for web based simulation are reviewed. Web based applications are discussed. After proposing a summary of the review, ways of working that will have an unpredictable effect on the future of simulation modeling are proposed.

Kyle Robert G., Ludka Christopher R. Simulating the furniture industry // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1347-1350.
With the use of simulation, manufacturers are able to quickly and accurately model future proposed modifications to their facilities without making costly guesses. Furthermore, if modeled correctly, the simulation model built to assess the significance of a proposed layout change can be evolved into an operational planning tool that can be utilized on a continued basis to evaluate issues such as scheduling sequences or batch sizes.

Law Averill M., McComas Michael G. How the expertfit distribution-fitting package can make your simulation models more valid // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.253-258.
This paper discuss the critical role of simulation input modeling in a successful simulation study.

Law, A.M., McComas, M.G. (2000). Simulation-based optimization // In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 46-49.

Law Averill M., McComas Michael G. Simulation-based optimization // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.46-49.
In this article authors represent an introduction to simulation based optimization, which is, perhaps, the .hottest. topic in discrete-event simulation today. We give a precise statement of the problem being addressed and also experimental results for two commercial optimization packages applied to a manufacturing example with seven decision variables.

Leemis Lawrence.. Input modeling // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.17-25.
Discrete-event simulation models typically have stochastic elements that mimic the probabilistic nature of the system under consideration. Successful input modeling requires a close match between the input model and the true underlying probabilistic mechanism associated with the system. The general question considered here is how to model an element in a discrete-event simulation given a data set collected on the element of interest. For brevity, it is assumed that data is available on the aspect of the simulation of interest. It is also assumed that raw data is available, as opposed to censored data, grouped data, or summary statistics.

Legrand Iosif C., Newman Harvey B. The monarc toolset for simulating large network-distributed processing systems // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1794-1801.

Lemieux Christiane, L’Ecuyer Pierre. Using lattice rules for variance reduction in simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.509-516.
Quasi-Monte Carlo methods are designed to improve upon the Monte Carlo method for multidimensional numerical integration by using a more regularly distributed point set than the i.i.d. sample associated with Monte Carlo. Lattice rules are one family of quasi-Monte Carlo methods, originally proposed by Korobov in 1959. In this paper, we explain how randomized lattice rules can be used to construct efficient estimators for typical simulation problems, and we give several numerical examples. We are interested in two main aspects: Studying the variance of these estimators and finding which properties of the lattice rules should be considered when defining a selection criterion to rate and choose them. Numerical results for three different problems illustrate how this methodology typically improves upon the usual Monte Carlo simulation method.

Li Janice P. Train station passenger flow study // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1173-1176.
With the increasing demand for public transportation due to congested highways, trains have become one of the most viable alternatives, especially for daily commuting. While transit agencies are excited with the increasing ridership, they are also challenged with a higher volume of passenger flow and longer queuing lines at the existing stations. To improve the current situation and plan for the future, transit agencies are using simulation tools to help evaluate station design, queue management, fare equipment design and fare policy impacts.

Peter Lorenz. Web-basierte Simulation und HLA in H.Szczerbicka und Th.Uthmann (Hrsg.): Modellierung- Simulation und Künstliche Intelligenz. SCS Europe BVBA Ghent 2000, p.417-436.

P. Lorenz, B.B. Müller, R. Freudenberg, H. Gebhardt, H. Herper, H. Peters, A. Saßmannshausen. Methodenentwicklung zur präventiven Abschätzung der Belastungsituation und des Gefahrenpotentials bei geänderten Arbeitsstrukturen unter Zuhilfenahme der Simulationstechnik. ISBN 3-9804874-0-7. Magdeburg 2000.

Lu T., Chungnan L., and Hsia W. 2000. Supporting large-scale distributed simulation using HLA // ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 10, 3, P.268–294.

Marr Charles, Storey Christopher, Biles William E., KleijnenA Jack P.C. Java-based simulation manager for web-based simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1815-1822.
This paper discusses a Web-based simulation manager program that executes an Application Service Provider event for a customer who does not possess the in house capability to program complex simulations.

Marzouk Mohamed, Moselhi Osama. Optimizing earthmoving operations using object-oriented simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1926-1930.
This paper presents an automated system for optimizing earthmoving operations. The proposed system can assist earthmoving contractors, during bid preparation stage, in estimating the time and cost required in order to accomplish the task at hand. It also provides a methodology for recommending the most suitable equipment fleet that satisfies the job requirements and the stated objectives of contractors.

Mason Colin R., Moffat James. Representing the C2 process in simulations: modelling the human decision-maker // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.940-949.

McGraw Robert M., MacDonald Richard A. Abstract modeling for engineering and engagement level simulations // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.326-334.

Medeiros D.J., Traband Mark, Tribble April, Lepro Rebekah, Fast Kenneth, Williams Daniel. Simulation based design for a shipyard manufacturing process // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1411-1414.
Discrete event simulation can be used for virtual prototyping of new manufacturing facilities. Models built for this purpose must be easy to use, flexible, and provide a realistic graphical view of the proposed system. The DESTINY project has developed models of plate processing operations to assist shipyards in modernizing their plate fabrication lines. Configuration information for a proposed line is collected via a Web interface, which then launches a program to build and execute a simulation of the system. Graphics images and statistical reports are then returned to the user via the Web interface. The approach allows rapid analysis of technology improvements and a visualization of proposed system operation.

Mehta Arvind. Smart modeling – basic methodology and advanced tools // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.241-245.
The paper discusses how a complex simulation project can be executed efficiently and effectively following simple basic methodology, and using advanced modeling features provided by the simulation tool. The paper explains the methodology that should be followed for the successful outcome of a simulation project. The paper also discusses and illustrates some of the advanced modeling capabilities provided by a simulation tool Witness, that enable the user to build complex models very quickly and at the same time, incorporate desirable characteristics like high flexibility, sharability, and re-usability.

Metz Michael L. Joint warfare system (JWARS) verification and validation lessons learned // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.855-858.
JWARS V&V (a joint venture of Innovative Management Concepts in Sterling VA and BMH Associates in Norfolk VA) has been responsible for conducting the verification and validation (V&V) of the JWARS simulation since September of 1997. This paper describes the lessons learned during the conduct of the effort including: the JWARS V&V process, the JWARS V&V Plan, reports delivered, and results to date. Special emphasis is on the use of the DoD VV&A Recommended Practices Guide as a basis of JWARS V&V planning and procedures and the evolution of the JWARS V&V Integrated Product Team.

Miller Scott, Pegden Dennis. Introduction to manufacturing simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.63-66.
This article represents an overview of simulation to manufacturing design and scheduling. A review of the modeling considerations in both application areas is provided. Finally, a number of example applications will be presented to illustrate the concepts.

Mizuta Hideyuki, Steiglitz Ken. Agent-based simulation of dynamic online auctions // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1772-1777.
The need to understand dynamic behavior in auctions is increasing with the popularization of online auctions. Applications include designing auction mechanisms, bidding strategies, and server systems. We describe simulations of a typical online auction, where the duration is fixed, and the second-highest price is continuously posted and determines the winner’s payment. We modeled agents of exactly two types, idealizations and simplifications of those observed in practice: early bidders, who can bid any time during the auction period, and snipers, who wait till the last moments to bid.

Moore Kendra E., Chiang Jack C. ALPHA/Sim simulation software tutorial // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.259-267.
ALPHA/Sim is a general-purpose, discrete-event simulation tool. ALPHA/Sim allows a user to graphically build a simulation model, enter input data via integrated forms, execute the simulation model, and view the simulation results, within a single graphical environment. In this paper, we introduce ALPHA/Sim and describe how to use ALPHA/Sim to build, simulate, and analyze a simple manufacturing system. In addition, we briefly describe some advanced features and list some sample applications.

Mota Edjair, Wolisz Adam, Pawlikowski Krzysztof. A perspective of batching methods in a simulation environment of multiple replications in parallel // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.761-766.
Discrete event simulation is frequently time-consuming either because modern dynamic systems, such as telecommunication networks, are becoming increasingly complex and/or a great number of observations is required to yield reasonably accurate results. An interesting approach to reduce the time duration of simulation is that of concurrently running multiple replications in parallel on a number of processors connected via networking and averaging the results adequately. We present the results of our research on the suitability of batch-means-based procedures in such distributed stochastic simulation.

Mullarkey Peter, Gavirneni Srinagesh, Morrice Douglas J. Dynamic output analysis for simulations of manufacturing environments // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1290-1296.
We describe the design and implementation of a generic, real-time, in-line output analysis procedure for controlling simulations of discrete manufacturing environments. We implemented this capability in the commercial simulation software Extend. The main issues we faced were (1) Specifying the products to evaluate, (2) Determining the batch sizes for output analysis, and (3) Defining the stopping conditions based on the confidence intervals.

Nam Kyoo Boots, Shahabuddin Perwez. Simulating GI/GI/1 queues and insurance risk processes With subexponential distributions // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.656-665.
This paper deals with estimating small tail probabilities of the steady-state waiting time in a GI/GI/1 queue with heavy-tailed (subexponential) service times.

Nance Richard E. Simulation education: past reflections and future directions // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1595-1601.
The results of two surveys of persons concerned with simulation education in the 1974-76 timeframe are compared with the results of a 1997 workshop entitled, .What Makes a Modeling and Simulation Professional? Analysis of these two samplings, separated in time by over 20 years and admittedly with differing objectives and under dissimilar conditions, is used to identify persistent issues, beliefs or convictions regarding the needs for professionals. The intent is to establish a departure point for further discussion of simulation education.

Narayanan S. Web-based modeling and simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.60-62.
Paper introduces the emerging area of web-based simulations and presents an overview of the opportunities and challenges in this field. This introduction begins with an outline of the WWW and aspects of simulation impacted by advances on the Internet. Next, various types of applications of web-based simulations are illustrated. Article concludes with an synopsis of research and development efforts on web-based simulations, including online simulation documentation, client-side simulation applets, server-side simulations, and distributed, interactive, web-based simulators.

Oren Tuncer I., Numrich S. K., Uhrmacher Adelinde M., Wilson Linda F., Gelenbe Erol. Agent-directed simulation – challenges to meet defense and civilian requirements // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1757-1762.

Owen Larry E., Zhang Yunlong, Rao Lei, McHale Gene. Traffic flow simulation using CORSIM // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1143-1147.
This paper presents an overview of the concept and features of the CORSIM traffic simulation program and the TSIS package that provides an integrated, user-friendly interface and environment for executing CORSIM. The new functions and feature of CORSIM and TSIS in the most recent release are highlighted. Several successful TSIS/CORSIM applications are used to demonstrate that CORSIM is a very effective tool to perform traffic operations analysis and to evaluate new ITS technologies.

Panayiotou Christos G., Cassandras Christos G., Wei-Bo Gong. Model abstraction for discrete event systems using neural networks and sensitivity information // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.335-341.
In this paper, we investigate the use of sensitivity information to reduce the simulation effort required for training a Neural networks metamodel.

Paprotny Igor, Shiau Juin-Yan, Huh Yo, Mackulak Gerald T. Simulation based comparison of semiconductor AMHS alternatives: continuous flow vs. overhead monorail // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1333-1338.

Pawlikowski Krysztof, Kreutzer Wolfgang. Integrating modelling and data analysis in teaching discrete event simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1645-1650.
This paper argues for the importance of teaching those issues that critically affect the analysis and credibility of a simulation results alongside those methods and tools targeted at the needs of model design and construction.

Phelps Richard A., Parsons David J., Siprelle Andrew J. The SDI industry product suite: simulation from the production line to the supply chain // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.280-214.
The SDI Industry®Product Suite is a versatile, high-level simulation toolset for solving problems of whole enterprises. It adds important capabilities to an existing simulation package, Extend, which provides a robust simulation architecture and a wealth of existing building blocks. The SDI Industry Product Suite contains 5 specific elements for modeling the enterprise: SDI Database for high-speed data import/export; SDI Industry for highspeed, high-volume production line modeling; SDI Plant Builder for multi-stage plants driven by schedules; and Supply Chain Builder for supply/distribution chains.

Pidd M., Cassel R. A., Using Java to Develop Discrete Event Simulations, The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2000, P.405-412.

Pritchett Amy R., Lee Seungman, Huang David, Goldsman David. Hybrid-system simulation for national airspace system safety analysis // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1132-1142.
This paper describes the development of a simulation architecture meeting these criteria. The issues with its development are described conceptually, and its application to the task of safety analysis of the national airspace system is discussed. In particular, an object-oriented approach to hybrid-system simulation is detailed, and computationally efficient methods of updating the simulation are described and compared.

Rabbath C.A., Abdoune M., Belanger J. Effective real-time simulations of event-based systems // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.232-238.
This paper presents a set of novel tools that allow the efficient simulation, at fixed time steps, of event-based dynamic systems.

Rehn Gordon D. Simulation in daily factory operation: “setting the line bogey in Augusta” // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1380-1384.
This paper describes the simulation tool structure designed for John Deere Augusta Works, and discusses the circumstances surrounding this unique simulation application. Included in the discussion are the benefits derived from the application; the critical success factors enabling its use; lessons learned in converting a simulation analysis into an operating tool; and future improvements envisioned.

Richter H. and März L. (2000). Toward a standard process: the use of UML for designing simulation models // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, pp. 394-398.

Rodrigues Marcelo B., Karpowicz Mario, Kang Keebom. A readiness analysis for the Argentine air force and the Brazilian NAVY A-4 fleet via consolidated logistics support // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1068-1074.
The Argentine Air Force and the Brazilian Navy recently added the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk aircraft to their military services. Each country maintains its own limited repair facility and spare parts inventory. Major repair work must be sent to the manufacturers in the United States, and the long repair cycle times adversely affect military readiness. It is critical to implement an effective spare parts management system to compensate for such long repair cycle times. We developed a simulation model to study the impact of consolidating aviation component spare parts inventory management and reducing transportation cycle times.

Rohrer Matthew W.. Automod tutorial // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.170-176.

Rosenberger Jay M., Schaefer Andrew J., Goldsman David, Johnson Ellis L., Kleywegt Anton J., Nemhauser George L. Simair: a stochastic model of airline operations // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1118-1122.
Airline transportation systems are inherently random. However, airline planning models do not explicitly consider stochasticity in operations. Because of this, there is often a notable discrepancy between a schedule’s planned and actual performance. SimAir is a modular airline simulation that simulates the daily operations of a domestic airline. Its primary purpose is to evaluate plans, such as crew schedules, as well as recovery policies in a random environment. We describe the structure of SimAir, and we give future directions for the study of airline planning under uncertainty.

Rossetti Manuel D., Aylor Ben, Jacoby Ryan, Prorock Alyson. Simfone: an object-oriented simulation framework // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1855-1864.
This paper presents an overview of a software design framework for the development of object-oriented simulations. The framework is documented using the Unified Modeling Language and is divided into packages to organize the collection of classes into important functional areas. The purpose of the framework is two-fold. First, the framework is useful in understanding the concepts and abstractions within simulation modeling and languages. Secondly, the framework can serve as the basis for the development of object-oriented simulation libraries. We illustrate the latter through a Java implementation.

Ruiz-Torres Alex J., Zapata Edgar. Simulation based operational analysis of future space transportation systems // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1123-1131.
This paper presents an approach to the operational analysis of future space transportation systems. The model proposed under this approach utilizes expert knowledge to predict the operational requirements of a vehicle concept, including the ground activities, flows, resources, and costs; all the components of the spaceport. The model incorporates simulation in order to include spaceport characteristics as alternative flows, processing variability, and other random events. This model will provide vehicle designers with useful understanding of the spaceport operations related to the investigated vehicle design.

Rybin Erwin, Breitenecker Felix. Simulation of a production plant in the brick industry // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1915-1918.
The paper deals with a simulation study on a planned production plant in the brick industry. We implemented this plant in TAYLOR II. Although the boundary conditions seemed relatively simple, we had to manage a complex, non-linear system. For this reason we implemented .dynamic priority. to the main part of the system, the travelling crane. Still this sophisticated logic was not enough to guarantee good operation, because insome situations the system runs out of capacity. We then gave recommendations how to improve the situation for a perfect operation of the production system. For this purpose we finally made an analysis of the necessary investment costs against the running costs caused by system breakdown.

Sadowski Deborah A., Grabau Mark R. Tips for successful practice of simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.26-31.
Succeeding with a technology as powerful as simulation involves much more than the technical aspects you may have been trained in. The parts of a simulation study that are outside the realm of modeling and analysis can make or break the project We explore the most common pitfalls in performing simulation studies and identify approaches for avoiding these problems.

Sanchez Susan M., Ferrin David M., Ogazon Tom, Sepúlveda José A., Ward Timothy J. Emerging issues in healthcare simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1999-2003.
Despite the size and importance of the health care industry, simulation is less prevalent in health care than in other fields such as manufacturing, logistics, and military applications. Yet simulation clearly has the potential to play a role in health care decision-making at many levels. The purpose of this panel is to discuss some of the issues that practioners must be aware of in order to tap the potential of simulation in the health care arena. The panelists have extensive experience in health care and the use of simulation in that environment. They have provided statements outlining several key issues for achieving success in current and future health care simulation projects.

Sargent Robert G. Verification, validation, and accreditation of simulation models // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.50-59.
Paper discusses verification, validation, and accreditation of simulation models. The different approaches to deciding model validity are presented; how model verification and validation relate to the model development process are discussed; various validation techniques are defined; conceptual model validity, model verification, operational validity, and data validity are described; ways to document results are given; a recommended procedure is presented; and accreditation is briefly discussed.

Sargent Robert G., Glasow Priscilla A., Kleijnen Jack P.C., Law Averill M., McGregor Ian, Youngblood Simone. Strategic directions in verification, validation, and accreditation research // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.909-916.
Six simulation professionals present their views on the directions that they believe that verification, validation, and accreditation research should take. Two of the six are active verification, validation, and accreditation researchers from academia, two develop industry simulation models, and two work in verification, validation, and accreditation of military simulation models. A number of areas and topics for research in verification, validation, and accreditation are identified. It appears that application domains of simulation models affect what topics need verification, validation, and accreditation research.

Sawhney Anil, Deshpande Hemant, Mund André. Javabeans-based framework for construction simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1919-1925.
This paper describes a prototype component-based architecture for construction simulation. It highlights the work performed by the authors in using JavaBeans for the simulation of construction processes.

Schriber Thomas J., Brunner Daniel T. Inside discrete-event simulation software: how it works and why it matters // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.90-100.
This paper provides simulation practitioners and consumers with a grounding in how discrete-event simulation software works. Topics include discrete-event systems; entities, resources, control elements and operations; simulation runs; entity states; entity lists; and entity-list management. The implementation of these generic ideas in AutoMod, SLX, and Extend is described. The paper concludes with several examples of .why it matters. for modelers to know how their simulation software works, including coverage of SIMAN (Arena), ProModel, and GPSS/H as well as the other three tools.

a href="http://simulation.su/uploads/files/default/2000-schruben-1.pdf" target="_blank">Schruben Lee W. Mathematical programming models of discrete event system dynamics // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.381-385.
Analytical models for the dynamics of some discrete event systems are introduced where the system trajectories are solutions to linear and mixed-integer programs.

Schulze Thomas, Schumann Marco, Gordon D. Rehn. Language based simulation models as management tools for assembly lines // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1393-1401.
This paper demonstrates that despite the trend to Point & Click environments, the traditional approach of using general-purpose simulation languages is still eligible. The authors share their experiences gained from building a complex simulation using the language SLX. On the basis of examples from the projects, the efficient modeling features of the SLX languages are highlighted.

Schunk Daniel. Modeling with the micro saint simulation package // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.274-279.
Micro Saint is a discrete-event simulation software package for building models that simulate real-life processes. With Micro Saint models users can gain useful information about processes that might be too expensive or time-consuming to test in the real world. Simulation is a cost-effective way to help show decision makers the most cost-efficient alternatives to any problem.

Schunk Daniel, Plott Beth. Using simulation to analyze supply chains // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1095-1100.
This paper will demonstrate what some of the considerations are in using Supply Solver to help solve supply chain design problems.

Schwetman Herb. Optimizing simulations with CSIM18/OptQuest: finding the best configuration // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.268-273.
In many cases, a simulation model of a system is used to evaluate alternative configurations of that system, with the goal of finding the configuration which maximizes (or minimizes) the value of an objective while meeting all of the stated requirements. The CSIM18/OptQuest package automates this kind of search for the best configuration by combining a powerful simulation engine, CSIM18, and a state-of-the-art optimization package, OptQuest. This paper describes this integrated package for doing optimization and simulation. The paper concludes with two examples: finding the best configuration for a jobshop, and finding the best configuration for a web server.

Seila Andrew F. Medical education as a model for simulation education // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1624-1629.
Simulation professionals need to see themselves first as systems analysts, i.e., problem solvers, rather than just simulation users. As the networked digital economy develops, systems will become more complex, creating a robust market for experienced systems analysts who use simulation to solve operational problems and manage these complex systems. Physicians solve problems involving a complex biological system, i.e., the human body. The medical education system in the United States is examined and proposed as a model for an education structure for professional systems analysts. The objectives and requirements of simulation education are examined and a curriculum structure is proposed. It is also argued that certifying exams would do much to promote the profession and improve the educational environment.

Smith III Raymond L., Roberts Stephen D. A voice assisted simulation-animation architecture // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1201-1210.
This paper introduces a software architecture that has been used to enable voice assistance for a simulation-animation environment by integrating technologies that recognize spoken language input and generate spoken language output.

Stahl Ingolf. How should we teach simulation? // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1602-1612.
This paper deals with the issue of how one can teach simulation in the most time-efficient way. We first distinguish between different types of student as regards their background and future needs. We next look at reasons for studying simulation at a business school. Next we compare animation oriented simulators with simulation languages. We then study a list of desirable criteria for simulation software, in particular simulation languages, that should be used in education. We finally answer the question if there is any system that fulfills all of these criteria.

Standridge Charles R., Heltne David R. An MSE-based simulation capability for strategic and tactical logistics // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1107-1113.

Steiger Natalie M., Wilson James R. Experimental performance evaluation of batch means procedures for simulation output analysis // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.627-636.

Sudra Rajeev, Taylor Simon J.E., Janahan Tharumasegaram. Distributed supply chain simulation in GRIDS // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.356-361.

Surdu John R., Hill John M.D., Pooch Udo W. Anticipatory planning support system // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.950-957.
This paper presents a methodology for building an automated system to support Anticipatory Planning.

Takakuwa Soemon, Takizawa Hiroki, Ito Kumiko, Hiraoka Shinichiro. Simulation and analysis of non-automated distribution warehouses // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1177-1184.
The distribution warehouse is located between manufacturers and customers. Storage facilities are designed around four primary functions: holding, consolidation, break-bulk, and mixing. In addition, materials handling within a storage-handling system reduces to three primary activities: loading and unloading, movement to and from storage, and order filling. Generally, it is more difficult to build a simulation model for a non-automated warehouse than for AS/RS, because materials handling is much more complicated. In this study, a procedure to build simulation models for move store activities of complicated and non-automated distribution warehouses is proposed. The simulation model here is designed to execute together with the program for generating parameters of materials handling.

Taranto Sarah E., Harper Ann M., Edwards Erick B., Rosendale John D., McBride Maureen A., Daily O. Patrick, Murphy Dan, Poos Bill, Reust Janet, Schmeiser Bruce. Developing a national allocation model for cadaveric kidneys // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1971-1977.
The UNOS Kidney Allocation Model (UKAM) is a software tool for the simulation and analysis of national cadaveric kidney and kidney-pancreas allocation policies for transplantation. UKAM is modular and is designed to enable easy updating of the various components as new data become available. UKAM.s flexibility gives the user the ability to create and evaluate an almost infinite number of detailed allocation policies. This will enable the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to make decisions based on quantitative data when considering changes in organ allocation policies.

Taylor James G., Yildirim Ugur Ziya, Murphy William S. Hierarchy-of-models approach for aggregated-force attrition // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.925-932.
This paper presents some innovations for overcoming shortcomings in the current state-of-the-art for the hierarchy-of-models approach to modeling aggregated force attrition in ground-combat models. The basic concept of such an approach for modeling large-scale system behavior is presented, together with the theoretical underpinnings for modeling attrition in large-scale ground combat.

van Burgsteden Marco C., Joustra Paul E., Bouwman Michiel R., Hullegie Mark. Modeling road traffic on airport premises // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1154-1163.
This paper describes the development of a traffic-modeling tool as an Arena template and two applications of it: one to evaluate alternative designs for the road network on the premises of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and one to assess the effects of traffic signaling on a junction. The tool uses discrete event simulation, very suited for modeling traffic in areas where there are a lot of interactions other than car following. Generation of the O/D matrix was done automatically by a custom-made application.

Van Dijk Nico M. On hybrid combination of queueing and simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – pp.147-150.
This paper aims to and illustrate that simulation and queuing theory can and should go hand in hand for a variety of practical problems, both in daily-life and industry, which are still open for fundamental research. To this end, it will highlight real-life cases taken from: Daily-life situations (postal office or bank), administrative logistics (reengineering), transportation (railways), and call center analysis.

White K. Preston, Cobb Michael J., Spratt Stephen C. A comparison of five steady-state truncation heuristics for simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.755-760.

Wiedemann Thomas. A virtual textbook for modeling and simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1660-1665.
The goal of this paper is to present a real working database system for managing links and generating collections of simulation related material for teaching and learning purposes.

Wiedemann Thomas. VISUALSLX – an open user shell for high-performance modeling and simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1865-1871.
This paper reveals the architecture and the underlying data structures of the system. Additional requirements and interfaces are caused by the application of VisalSLX as a web-based modeling and simulation system.

Wilensky U., Stroup W. (2000). Networked gridlock: Students enacting complex dynamic phenomena with the HubNet architecture // Proceedings of the Fourth Annual International Conference of the LearningSciences, Ann Arbor, MI, June 14 - 17.

Wilensky U., Centola D. (2007, based on 2000 paper). Simulated Evolution: Facilitating Students' Understanding of the Multiple Levels of Fitness through Multi-Agent Modeling // Paper presented at the Evolution Challenges conference, Phoenix, AZ, November 1-4.

Withers David H. Software engineering best practices applied to the modeling process // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.432-439.
We present a mapping of Best Practices from the field of software engineering to the practice of discrete event simulation model construction. There are obvious parallels between the two activities. We therefore hypothesize there should be opportunities to improve the model construction process by taking advantage of these parallels. This research extends the prior work (Withers 1993) that provided a structured definition of the modeling process.

Wooldridge M., Jennings N. R., David K. The Gaia Methodology for Agent-Oriented Analysis and Design // Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 3, pp. 285-312, 2000.

Workman Russell W. Simulation of the drug development process: a case study from the pharmaceutical industry // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1995-1998.
This paper uses a case study from the pharmaceutical industry to show how simulation modeling can be applied to understanding large, highly-complex processes such as drug development.

Yeh Yingchieh, Schmeiser Bruce. Simulation output analysis via dynamic batch means // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.637-645.
This paper is focused on estimating the quality of the sample mean from a steady-state simulation experiment with consideration of computational efficiency, memory requirement, and statistical efficiency.

Young Hae Lee, Sook Han Kim. Optimal production-distribution planning in supply chain management using a hybrid simulation-analytic approach // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1252-1259.
In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach which is a specific problem solving procedure combining analytic and simulation methods to solve production-distribution problems in supply chains. The machine capacity and distribution capacity constraints in the analytic model are considered as stochastic factors and are adjusted by the proposed specific process according to the results from an independently developed simulation model which includes general production-distribution characteristics.

Zayed Tarek M., Halpin Daniel W. Simulation as a tool for resource management // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.1897-1906.
In this paper, simulation is applied to a Concrete Batch Plant to analyze alternative solutions and resource management.

Zeigler Bernard P., Sarjoughian Hessam S. Creating distributed simulation using devs M&S environments // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.158-160.
The modelling and simulation theory is considered and its support for constructing distributed simulations. Formal representation of simulation models can contribute to a number of aspects in the modeling and simulation enterprise. Separation of models from simulation execution engines is a prerequisite transferring model among phases of a project as well as from project to project. The Discrete Event System Specification formalism, drawing on its system theoretic basis, provides a number of important properties such as hierarchical, modular composition, universality and uniqueness that can support development of simulation models and environments their development.

Zülch Gert, Fischer Jörg, Jonsson Uwe. An integrated object model for activity network based simulation // In: Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference (Joines, J.A, Barton, R.R., Kang, K. and Fishwick, P.A., eds). – 2000. – P.371-380.
This paper describes an object-orientated simulation approach towards an integrated planning of production systems.

Антонова Г.М. Using of variational method and LP-search in stochastic system study // Proceeding 2nd International Conference Control of Oscillations and Chaos COC 2000 (July 5-7, St.Petersburg, 2000), Volume 1.

Власов С.А., Генкин А.Л., Волочек Н.Г. Как решить актуальные проблемы автоматизации металлургических предприятий России // Промышленность России. 2000. № 1. c. 47-54.

Вознесенская Т.В. Математическая модель алгоритмов синхронизации времени для распределенного имитационного моделирования // «Программные системы и инструменты»: Тематический сборник факультета ВМиК МГУ им. Ломоносова / под ред. Л. Н. Королева – М.: МАКС Пресс, – 2000. №1. – С. 56–66.

Генкин А.Л., Куделин А.Р. Особенности моделирования энергосберегающих режимов управления горячей прокаткой полос // Труды Института проблем управления РАН. М.: Институт проблем управления им. В.А. Трапезникова РАН, 2000. Т.VIII. c. 71-76.

Малыгина С.Н. Реализация средствами системы динамического моделирования Powersim модели развития типового города Севера России // Теоретические и прикладные модели информатизации региона: Сборник научных трудов / КНЦ РАН, Апатиты, 2000, c. 53-60.

Ослин Б.Г. Технология имитационного моделирования систем массового обслуживания // В кн.: Материалы международной научно-технической конференции «Информационные системы и технологии». Т. 2., Изд-во НГТУ, Новосибирск, Россия, 8-11 ноября 2000 – С. 320-325.

Семишин Ю.А., Литвинова О.В. ДАСИМ как инструментальное средство моделирования дискретных систем // Технология и конструирование в электрон. аппаратуре, № 2-3 / 2000, с. 22-26.



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